Cognitive Bias Reference List

An older list of research on cognitive bias. Most sources before “fake news,” and “misinformation” were hot topics.

Also derives heavily from the intersection of educational psychology, cognition research, and reading comprehension research.

I need to update it but the whole fake news thing kinda bummed me out. It was like you told everybody to get ready but nobody listened.

Agosto, D. (2002). Bounded rationality and satisficing in young people’s web based decision making. Jornal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology.

Baron-Cohen, S. (1995) Mindblindness: An Essay on Autism and Theory of Mind. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Birch, S.A.J. (2005) ‘When Knowledge is a Curse: Children’s and Adults’ Reasoning About Mental States’, Current Directions in Psychological Science 14(1): 25–9.

Birch, S.A.J. and Bloom, P. (2003) ‘Children are Cursed: An Asymmetric Bias in Mental-State Attribution’, Psychological Science 14(3): 283–6.

Barrett, H. C., Todd, P. M., Miller. G. F., & Blythe P. W. (2005). Accurate judgments of intention from motion cues alone: Across-cultural study. Evolution and Human Behavior, 26, 313–331.

Bråten, I., Strømsø, H.I., & Britt, M.A. (2018). Trust matters: Examining the role of source evaluation in students' construction of meaning within and across multiple texts.

Brown, J. D. (1986). Evaluations of self and others: Self-enhancement biases in social judgments. Social Cognition, 4, 353–376.

Brown, J. S., Collins, A., & Duguid, P. (1989). Situated cognition and the culture of learning. Educational Researcher, 18(1), 32-42. doi: 10.3102/0013189X018001032

Camerer, C., Loewenstein, G., & Weber, M. (1989). The curse of knowledge in economic settings: An experimental analysis. Journal of Political Economy, 97(5), 1232-1254.

Campione, J. C., Shapiro, A. M., & Brown, A. L. (1995). Forms of transfer in a community of learners: Flexible learning and understanding.” In A. McKeough, J. Lupart, & A. Marini (Eds.), Teaching for transfer: Fostering generalization in learning. Mahwah, NJ: ERlbaum, 1995.

Cervetti, G., Pardales, M. J., & Damico, J. S. (2001, April). A tale of differences: Comparing the traditions, perspectives, and educational goals of critical reading and critical literacy. Reading Online, 4(9). Retrieved from…

Chiesi, H.L., Spilich, G.J., & Voss, J.F. (1979). Acquisition of domain-related knowledge in relation to high and low domain knowledge. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 18, 257-273.

DeSchryver, M. & Spiro, R. (2008). New forms of deep learning on the Web: Meeting the challenge of cognitive load in conditions of unfettered exploration. In R. Zheng (Ed.), Cognitive effects of multimedia learning (pp. 134-152). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Ekstrom, R. B., French, J. W., & Harman, H. H. (1979). Cognitive factors: Their identification and replication. Multivariate Behavioral Research Monographs, 79(2), 3-84.

Ennis, RH. (1962). A concept of critical thinking. Harvard Educational Review, 32, 81-111. 228

Ennis, R.H. (1987). A taxonomy of critical thinking dispositions and abilities. In J. B. Baron & R.J. Sternberg (Eds.), Teaching thinking skills: Theory and practice (pp. 9–26), New York, NY: W.H. Freeman.

Fischhoff, B. (1975) ‘Hindsight Does Not Equal Foresight: The Effect of Outcome Knowledge on Judgment Under Uncertainty’, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 1(3): 288–99.

Friedman, S.A. (2006) ‘Cloaked Classification: The Misdirection Film and Generic Duplicity’, Journal of Film and Video 58(4): 16–28.

Fogg, B.J., J. Marshall, O. Laraki, A. Osipovich, C. Varma, N. Fang, et al. (2001). What makes web sites credible? A report on a large quantitative study. Presented to the Computer-Human Interaction Conference, Seattle, Washington

Fogg, B.J., Soohoo, C., Danielson, D.R., Marable, L., Stanford, J., & Trauber, E.R. (2003). How do users evaluate the credibility of Web sites? A study with over 2,500 participants. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the Conference on Designing for User Experiences, San Francisco.Available at:….

Fox, S., & Rainie, L. (2002). Vital decisions: How Internet users decide what information to trust when they or their loved ones are sick. Washington, DC: Pew Internet & American Life Project. Retrieved June 5, 2008, from

Funder, D. C. (1995). On the accuracy of personality judgment: A realistic approach. Psychological Review, 102, 652–670.

Goldstein, W. M., & Hogarth, R. B. (1997). Research on judgment and decision making: Currents, connections, and controversies. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Gopnik, A. and Wellman, H. (1994) ‘The Theory-Theory’, in L. Hirschfeld and S. Gelman (eds) Mapping the Mind: Domain Specificity in Cognition and Culture, pp. 257–93. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Hagerty, M. R. (2003). Was life better in the “good old days”?Inter-temporal judgments of life satisfaction. Journal of Happiness Studies, 4, 115–139.

Hogarth, R. M. (1987). Judgment and choice: The psychology of decision. New York, NY: John Wiley

Johnson, D. (2004). Overconfidence and war: The havoc and gloryof positive illusions. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UniversityPress.

Kahneman, D., Slovic, P., & Tversky, A. (Eds.). (1982). Judgement under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press

Kintsch, W. (1988). The role of knowledge in discourse comprehension: A construction- integration model. Psychological Review, 95, 163-182

Langer, E. J. (1975). The illusion of control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32, 311–328.

Langer, E. J., & Roth, J. (1975). Heads I win, tails it’s chance: The illusion of control as a function of the sequence of outcomes in a purely chance task. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32, 951–955.

Liedtka, J. (2015). Perspective: Linking design thinking with innovation outcomes through cognitive bias reduction. Journal of product innovation management, 32(6), 925-938.

Maynes, J. (2015). Critical thinking and cognitive bias. Informal Logic, 35(2), 183-203.

Nünning, A. (1999) ‘Unreliable, Compared to What? Towards a Cognitive Theory of Unreliable: Prolegomena and Hypotheses’, in W. Grünzweig and A. Solbach (eds) Transcending Boundaries: Narratology in Context, pp. 53–73. Tübingen: Gunter Narr Verlag.

O’Gorman, R., Wilson, D. S., & Miller, R. R. (2008). An evolved cognitive bias for social norms. Evolution and Human Behavior, 29(2), 71-78.

Pronin, E., Lin, D.Y. and Ross, L. (2002) ‘The Bias Blind Spot: Perceptions of Bias in Self Versus Others’, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 28(3): 369–81

Sanchez, C.A., Wiley, J., & Goldman, S.R. (2006). Teaching students to evaluate source reliability during Internet research tasks. Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on the Learning Sciences (pp. 662-666). Bloomington, IN.

Rieh, S. Y., & Belkin, N. J. (1998). Understanding judgment of information quality and cognitive authority in the WWW. In C. M. Preston (Ed.), Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the ASIS (pp. 279-289). Silver Spring, MD: American Society for Information Science

Spiro, R. (2004). Principled pluralism for adaptive flexibility in teaching and learning to read. In R. B. Ruddell & N. Unrau (Eds.), Theoretical Models and Processes of Reading (pp. 654- 659). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Spiro, R. J., Coulson, R. L., Feltovich, P. J., & Anderson, D. K. (1988). Cognitive flexibility theory: Advanced knowledge acquisition in ill-structured domains (Tech. Rep. No. 441). Urbana-Champaign, IL: University of Illinois, Center for the Study of Reading. Retrieved from

Spiro, R. J., Feltovich, P. J., Jacobson, M. I., & Coulson, R. L. (1991). Cognitive flexibility, constructivism, and hypertext: Random access instruction for advanced knowledge acquisition in ill-structured domains. Educational Technology, 35, 24-33.

Spiro, R. J., Feltovich, P. L., Jacobson, M. J., & Coulson, R. L. (1992). Cognitive flexibility, constructivism, and hypertext: Random access instruction for advanced knowledge acquisition in ill-structured domains. In T. Duffy & D. Jonassesn (Eds.), Constructivism and the technology of instruction (pp. 57-76). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Spiro, R. J. & Jehng, J-C. (1990). Cognitive flexibility and hypertext: Theory and technology for the non-linear and multidimensional traversal of complex subject matter. In D. Nix & R. Spiro (Eds.), Cognition, education, and multimedia: Exploring ideas in high technology (pp. 163-206). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Spiro, R., Vispoel, W., Schmitz, J., Samarapungavan, A., & Boerger, A. (1987). Knowledge acquisition for application: Cognitive flexibility and transfer in complex content domains. [Electronic Version] In B. Britton & S. Glynn (Eds.), Executive control processes in reading (pp. 177–199). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Taylor, R. S. (1986). Value-added processes in information systems. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing.

Tillman, H. (2003). Evaluating quality on the net. The Selected Works of Hope Tillman. (Online, Unpublished Paper) Retrieved September 14, 2009 from….

Wang, Z., Jusup, M., Shi, L., Lee, J. H., Iwasa, Y., & Boccaletti, S. (2018). Exploiting a cognitive bias promotes cooperation in social dilemma experiments. Nature communications, 9(1), 1-7.

Wilson, P. (1983). Second-hand knowledge: An inquiry into cognitive authority. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Wineburg, S. (1991). Historical problem solving: A study of the cognitive processes used in the evaluation of documentary and pictorial evidence. Journal of Educational Psychology, 83, 73-87.

Wolf, W., King, M.L., Huck, C.S. (1968). Teaching Critical Reading to Elementary School Children Reading Research Quartely, (3)4.

Greg McVerry @jgmac1106